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History of Georgia

The history of Georgia, a country at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, is rich and complex, marked…

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The history of Georgia, a country at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, is rich and complex, marked by periods of independence, foreign domination, and cultural flourishing.

Ancient and Medieval Periods
Early Kingdoms:
Colchis and Iberia: The area now known as Georgia was home to early kingdoms such as Colchis in the west and Iberia (or Kartli) in the east. Colchis is famed in Greek mythology as the land of the Golden Fleece, while Iberia established early statehood and culture.
Christianization: In the early 4th century, Georgia became one of the first countries to adopt Christianity as the state religion, thanks to the missionary efforts of Saint Nino.

Golden Age:
Bagratid Dynasty: The medieval period saw the rise of the Bagratid dynasty, with King Bagrat III uniting various Georgian states in the late 10th century.
David IV and Queen Tamar: The 12th and early 13th centuries marked the Georgian Golden Age under King David IV (David the Builder) and Queen Tamar. This era saw military victories, territorial expansion, and a flourishing of culture and literature.

Foreign Domination and Struggle
Mongol and Persian Invasions:
Following the Golden Age, Georgia faced invasions and domination by Mongol, Persian, and later Ottoman forces. These invasions led to periods of fragmentation and decline.

Russian Annexation:
Early 19th Century: By the early 19th century, Georgia was annexed by the Russian Empire. The annexation began with the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti in 1801 and continued with the rest of the Georgian territories.

Modern Era
Independence and Soviet Period:
First Independence (1918-1921): Following the Russian Revolution, Georgia declared independence in 1918 and formed the Democratic Republic of Georgia. However, this independence was short-lived as Soviet forces invaded in 1921, leading to the incorporation of Georgia into the Soviet Union.
Soviet Republic: Georgia became a Soviet Socialist Republic, experiencing significant industrialization but also political repression, particularly under Joseph Stalin, who was ethnically Georgian.

Post-Soviet Independence:
Second Independence (1991): Georgia declared its independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. The post-independence period was marked by civil strife, including conflicts in the regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
Rose Revolution (2003): A peaceful change of power occurred in 2003 with the Rose Revolution, leading to reforms under President Mikheil Saakashvili.

Recent Developments
Conflict with Russia:
2008 War: In 2008, a brief war with Russia resulted in the Russian recognition of the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, which Georgia and most of the international community regard as part of Georgian territory.

Economic and Political Reforms:
Georgia has implemented various economic and political reforms aimed at modernization and integration with Western institutions. The country has pursued closer ties with the European Union and NATO.

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  1. Home
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  3. Regions
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  9. History of Georgia

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